Menu
Home / Vaccines & Medicines / Vaccines - What, Why, When?
Vaccines - What, Why, When?
December 12, 2012 by Dr. Mandar V. Bichu
   T T
Vaccines - What, Why, When?

No.

Vaccine

Protects against

Schedule

Comments

1.

BCG

Tuberculosis (a bacterial infection that can affect practically every organ-system)

At birth

Given intra-dermally (into the skin layers) on left arm. Protects against severe forms of tuberculosis. After about a month, a swelling develops at the site of injection, which then breaks with discharge and forms an ulcer, which heals to form a permanent scar.

2.

OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine) or IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine)

Poliomyelitis  (a viral illness that can sometimes cause paralysis and even death)

At birth, 2, 4, 6, 18 months and at 4-6 years

Both, OPV (oral) and IPV (IM injectable) polio vaccines are equally effective in protecting against paralytic form of polio. IPV is now favoured for its better safety profile but OPV provides the easier administration route and community protection.

3.

DPT (Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus)

Diphtheria (a bacterial membrane-forming throat infection with severe complications), Pertussis (a bacterial respiratory infection with whooping-type of cough) Tetanus (a bacterial infection affecting central nervous system and causing muscular spasms)

At 2, 4, 6, 18 months and at 4-6 years

Given as IM (intramuscular) injections. There are different versions of vaccines, DTP with a whole cellular pertussis component and the DTaP with an acellular pertussis component. The latter is with lesser side-effects (pain, fever, local swelling) but often wrongly marketed as a ‘painless’ DPT vaccine.

4.

Hib (H. influenza Type b)

H. influenza Type b (A bacterial infection affecting respiratory tract, ears and brain)

At 2, 4, 6 and 18 months

Given as IM injections.

5.

Rotavirus

Rotavirus (A common viral infection causing severe vomiting and diarrhea in young infants and children)

2 doses given one month apart between 2 to 6 months

Given orally.

6.

PCV (Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccine)

Pneumococcal infection (A bacterial infection affecting lungs, brain and ears)

At 2, 4, 6 and 12-15 months

Given as IM injections. Different types are available according to the number of bacterial strains covered.

7.

HBV (Hepatitis B Vaccine)

Hepatitis B (A viral infection affecting liver)

At birth, 2, 4 and 6 months

Given as IM injections on the arm. A single booster injection every 5 years.

8.

Measles

Measles (A viral infection with skin rash and complications of respiratory, nervous and gastrointestinal systems)

At 9 months

Given as IM injection. Sometimes after a week, some fever and rash may develop, which are mild and transient.

9.

MMR (Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine)

Measles (A viral infection with skin rash and complications of respiratory, nervous and gastrointestinal systems), Mumps (A viral infection causing salivary glands swelling and sometimes multi-system complications), Rubella (A viral infection causing skin-rash and lymph gland swellings. Maternal infection in early pregnancy can lead to multiple congenital abnormalities in the baby.)

At 15 months and at 4-6 years

Given as IM injection. Sometimes after a week, some fever, skin rash or salivary gland swellings may develop, which are mild and transient.

10.

Chickenpox (Varicella vaccine)

Chickenpox (A viral infection with skin rash and some times serious complications)

At 12 months and at 4-6 years

Given as subcutaneous (under the skin) injection. Two doses are necessary to complete the protection with minimum 1 month gap between them.

11.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A (A viral infection affecting liver)

At 12 and 18 months

Given as IM injection on arm.

12.

Influenza (Flu vaccine)

Influenza (A viral infection mainly affecting respiratory system and with many serious complications)

Every yearly(Above the age of 6 months)

Given as IM injection preferably at the beginning of flu-season. Every season a new vaccine prepared against that year’s most probable seasonal influenza viral types.

13.

Typhoid

Typhoid (A bacterial infection affecting the gastrointestinal system with many serious complications)

At 2 years.

IM injection. Repeated every 3 years, preferably before travel to areas where disease is common.

14.

Meningococcal Meningitis

Meningococcal Infection (A bacterial infection affecting brain and its coverings and with serious life-threatening complications)

At 2 years.

IM injection. Repeated every 3 years, preferably before travel to areas where disease is common. Different vaccines are available according to the types of bacteria they protect against.

15.

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus vaccine)

Human Papilloma Virus Infection (A viral infection that can lead to cervical and other types of cancers. It can also lead to genital warts.)

3 doses in 6 months, Age-group between 9 - 26 years.

IM injections. Ideal age-group 11-12 years. Main health benefits are for females but even advised for males.

 

Featured Video
Featured Album
Rightparenting Launch In Dubai (14th July 2007)
Rightparenting Launch In Dubai (14th July 2007)
Newsletter
Facebook
About
Right Parenting.Com is a site dedicated to offer compassionate scientific guidance on various parenting and child-health issues. It is managed by Dr. Mandar V. Bichu, a Sharjah-based paediatrician with the help of experts in various fields.
Contact
Right Parenting
Dr. Mandar V. Bichu
Map PO Box 2722, Sharjah, UAE
Mail contact@rightparenting.com
Facebook Twitter Google+ Linkedin
© 2017 Right Parenting. All rights reserved.
Partner sites: Cinema Sangeet Lata Online